Vera C. Rubin
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
Carnegie Institution of Washington
5241 Broad Branch Road, NW
Washington, DC 20015-1305
202.478.8861
(fax) 202.478.8821
rubin@dtm.ciw.edu
Vera C. Rubin
Vera Rubin, 1970 Vera Rubin, with DTM image tube spectrograph attached to the Kitt Peak 84-inch telescope, 1970.
This is an image of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the companion spiral to our own,
copied from the Palomar Sky Survey. The measured optical velocities from ionized
gas clouds are indicated as open and filled circles. Velocities from neutral hydrogen
radio observations are shown as filled triangles. Note that the velocities remain
high far beyond the optical disk.
Andromeda galaxy

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Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
Carnegie Institution of Washington
5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015
202.478.8820, 202-478-8821 (fax)